What are the types of ceramic?

Ceramics can be divided into three product groups depending on their strutcure and technical specifications.

Floor Tiles - Wall Tiles - Porcelain Tiles (Glazed and Unglazed)

What are the considerations for choosing ceramic tiles?
  • He technical specifications of a product are as important as the appearance for choosing the right product.
  • Do not use wall tiles on floors or in exteriors.
  • Wall tiles and porcelain tiles can be applied on walls with the right glue.
  • Porcelain tiles that have low water absorption properties can conveniently be used in exteriors.
  • Floor tiles should only be used outside with the right glue and waterproof, freeze-proof pointing material.
  • Products from a higher class of corrosion (PEI) should be chosen for areas with heavy pedestrian traffic.
  • Tiles with high non-slip properties should be used in wet areas such as around pools. 
What are the considerations before laying tiles?
  • The application area must be leveled and clean.
  • Color shade and caliber (size) information must be read carefully and products with different properties should not be applied in the same area. An acceptable range of shade and size differences is an expectable reality in ceramics technology.
  • If there are faulty, cracked, broken or deformed tiles, these should be set aside before use and taken back to the reseller with box/crate label information. Complaints made after the application of the product cannot be processed.
  • The directions for use on the labels must be followed when preparing the glue and the pointing filling.
  • It should be noted that the same color shade or product may not be available later in the case of maintenance; enough spare tiles should be stocked and stored for later use.
  • Water insulation applications must be carried out in exterior spaces such as terrace, balcony, and pool.
  • Extra products should be kept in its original packaging.
What are the considerations for use and maintenance?
  • Extra pointing filling left over after the application must be cleaned from the surface of the tiles before it dries. Water and a clean sponge is enough for this.
  • Cleaning becomes more difficult if filling residue hardens on the surface of the tiles. In that case, only special chemicals can clean the surface of the tiles (such as Yurtbay Cleaner). Surfaces must be rinsed with water after cleaning.
  • Only water and neutral cleaning products should be used to clean tiles with metallic surfaces (acidic or basic cleaning products may cause damage on the surfaces).
  • The frequency of cleaning may differ depending on the area of application from weekly to daily and several times a day (based on the potential of the application area for dirtying, and the surface properties of the tiles)
  • Glazed tiles (especially floor and wall tiles with glossy surfaces) may become scratched, so gel and cream cleaners should be used instead of powders.
What are the specifications, definitions and relevant standards?
  • Ceramic tiles have common structural technical specifications according to the product group they belong to, such as breaking and flexing resistance, cracking resistance, water absorbency, frost resistance, and heat shock resistance.
  • Technical specifications that vary depending on the surface properties of each product are defined separately, such as corrosiveness, stain and chemical resistance, and non-slip properties.
  • Size and thickness, edge straightness, surface straightness and surface quality are also indicated with their tolerance values, depending on the product group.
  • Yurtbay Seramik manufactures products according to the international standard TS EN 14411 2012, which has been accepted and published by TSE, and employs testing methods defined by this standard for product quality control.
  • Our ISO 9001 Quality Management System has been certified by TÜV Austria, an international institution, and is inspected frequently.
  • Product group definitions based on type of shape and water absorbency (Eb) values:
What are the designations on the box / pallet?

Boxes feature the following labels (example):

Produc Group : Wall Tile
Product Name: : Nuance White
Nominal Size : 20 x 50
Caliber (Working Size) : W2 (indicates space between two tiles)
Color Shade : T12 (indicates party)
Quality : Birinci / First
Production date : 190315 ( March 19, 2015)
Number – M2 : 10 / approximately 1 m2 (box)
What is size and calibration information?
  • Mandatory changes in operational conditions (furnace, press) and the changing properties of raw materials found in nature are foundations of ceramics technology. This is why tiles in the same batch of production can vary in a certain range.
  • In order to make it easier to apply the tiles and group products of a certain range together, products are classified and boxed by automatic dimension definition devices.
  • If the standard foresees a range of 3 mm depending on the size produced, three groups are formed for each 1 mm range with caliber classification; these classes are caliber classes (W1, W2, W3).
  • To prevent dimension problems during application, buyers must note crate and box label information, and use tiles with the same caliber information together.
What does color tone information define?
  • As indicated in dimension indications, and another constant in ceramics technology, it is natural for products produced at different times to display acceptable ranges of color shades.
  • Thus, each batch produced is defined by a color shade class (T1, T15, T73).
  • Products with the same color shade class should be applied in the same area.
  • Tiles should be checked on the ground before application, and faulty tiles should not be applied if there are faults outside the range.
Identification of color, tone and texture variability (V classification)?
  • V1 = THE SAME APPEARANCE (SINGLE FILE): With small and negligible differences from tile to tile, every tile has the same texture, color, shade, and motif.
  • V2 = SLIGHT VARIATION There may be variations between the textures and/or patterns of the same color. The general appearance of tiles are highly similar.
  • V3 = MEDIUM-LEVEL VARIATION: Colors in a tile give information about colors in other tiles, however, the density of color may be quite different. A color that seems unimportant on one tile may be the dominant color on another.
  • V4 = RANDOM VARIATION / RANGE Two tiles may be of entirely different colors. Consumers may not choose tiles from a box. Tiles have a natural look due to color variations. This makes each application unique.
What is anti-slip? What is an anti-slip product?
  • Floor tiles / porcelain tiles have varying slipperiness depending on surface properties.
  • Tiles with no-slip properties are called "antislip".
  • Most frequently, DIN 51130 and DIN 51097 (German standards) and ASTM C1028 (wet/dry COF) and ANSI B101.3 (wet DCOF) (American standards) are used to classify non-slipperiness.
  • The slip angles and friction coefficients of tiles are measured according to relevant standards, which indicates for which areas they are appropriate for use.
  • Antislip products are used in areas with high slipperiness, such as pools and poolside, and insdustrial areas that becomes slippery with oil and similar products.
Kaymazlık sınıfları nelerdir, hangi ürünler nereye döşenir?
  • Slipperiness classification for industrial areas are determined based on the slip angle in ramp tests and are grouped between R9-R13.
    Classification according to DIN 51130 is as follows:
    R9  : slip angle >60 – 100 / low static friction (entryways, bathrooms, kitchens)
    R10 : slip angle >100 – 190 / normal static friction (storage areas)
    R11 : slip angle >190 – 270 / increased static friction (restaurants, dining halls)
    R12 : slip angle >270 – 350 / high static friction (industrial kitchens, fire houses)
    R13 : slip angle >350 / very high static friction (leather-textile factories, oil production facilities)
  • Classification based on barefeet test, DIN 51097: 
    Class A : incline angle >120 - 170 (corridors, saunas and resting areas where foot traffic is barefoot)
    Class B : incline angle >180 - 230 (poolside showers, steps)
    Class C : incline angle >240 (pool sides with incline)
  • According to ASTM C1028: 
    SCOF 0 – 0.5 slippery product
    SCOF 0.5 – 0.6 not completely safe
    SCOF > 0.6 perfect friction (min. condition)
  • According to ANSI B101.3: 
    DCOF < 0.30 slipping highly likely
    DCOF 0.30-0.40 (leveled floor) , 0.30-0.42 (inclined) acceptable
    DCOF > 0.42 (leveled floor) , > 0.45 (inclined) slipping unlikely (min. condition)
What are the ratings for wear? What does PEI mean?
  • Glazed tiles are grouped in five classes depending on their corrosion values. Surface corrosion resistance classification is carried out according to the test indicated in the TS EN 10545-17 standard, and defined as a value between PEI 1 and 5.
  • Dark colored products have a lower PEI class than light colored products.
  • When choosing a product, the usage traffic in the area should be noted, and products with the appropriate corrosion resistance (PEI class) should be used.

    PEI .I : Appropriate for floors without corrosive materials, where foot traffic is barefeet or with soft-soled shoes (bathroom, bedroom, etc.)
    PEI .II : Appropriate for floors where a small amount of corrosive materials may be present, and where foot traffic is with trainers or rubber-soled shoes (dining room, living areas)
    PEI .III : Appropriate for floors where a small amount of corrosive materials may be present, and where foot traffic is with leather soles (corridors, hall entrances, terraces)
    PEI .IV : Appropriate for floors where corrosive materials are present, and where foot traffic is heavy (pharmacy, school, hotel lobbies)
    PEI .V : Appropriate for floors where corrosive materials are present, and where foot traffic is heavy (malls, cafeteria entrances, shopping aisles)

    PEI.V class products also must have high stain resistance.
What is the stain resistance classification?
  • The resistance of tiles against home chemicals, pool chemicals and various stainers (coffee, acids, bases, ink, etc.) is tested, and tiles are classified accordingly. The relevant standard suggests that the minimum stain class for glazed and unglazed tiles must be 3.
  • Classification ;
    Class 5: Stains on the tile may be cleaned with hot water.
    Class 4: Stains may be removed with mild cleaning products.
    Class 3: Stains may be removed with strong cleaners.
    Class 2: Stains may be removed with solvents (such acetone).
What does Lappato refer to?
  • This is the glossing of glazed or unglazed porcelain tiles with mild mechanical corrosion (after firing). They are most frequently covered with a special layer of film against staining.
  • Surfaces look more glossy and elegant after this.
  • Specially produced wall tiles and granulated floor tiles can undergo a semi-lappato process for a semi-gloss look. This way, a different effect is achieved on the tile's surface.
What is rectified tile?
  • his is the sizing process to offset the size variations between tiles.
  • The inclined part of tile sides are offset with this process, which makes the application more rounded.
  • It is suggested that rectified tiles be applied with a minimum of 1 mm pointing in between.
What is color tone code (T) available on our dry and palette labels?
  • The color shade code may be described as the party numbers of products produced at different times.
  • This is a system that starts with T1 and continues successively.
  • Successive numbers (T3, T4, T5) do not indicate closeness in color.
  • Every shade complements itself and the same color shades must absolutely be applied to the same areas.
When ing tiles?
• In choosing the right product, visual and aesthetic appearance and technical features of products are important.
• Never apply wall tiles to the floor and outdoors.
• Slabs and porcelain tiles can be applied to the wall using appropriate adhesives.
• Porcelain tiles with low water absorption value can easily be laid outdoors.
• Slabs should only be used together with suitable adhesive and waterproof, frost-resistant joint sealant.
• Tiles to be laid in areas with heavy foot traffic should be selected from products with high abrasion class PEI).
• In wet areas such as near the pool, high non-slip tiles should be used.
• Ceramics can be divided into three product groups according to their structure and specifications:
Slabs - Wall Tiles - Porcelain Tiles (Glazed and Unglazed)
• V1 = SAME APPEARANCE (UNIFORM): Slight and insignificant differences between tiles, each tile has the same texture, color, tone and motif.
• V2 = SLIGHT DIFFERENCE: There may be differences between the same colors in texture and/or pattern. The overall appearance of the tiles is quite similar.
• V3 = MODERATE DIFFERENCE: Although a color in a tile may give information about colors in other tiles, colors in a tile may differ significantly in terms of color intensity. A color that appears to be negligible on the tile can be a predominant color on another tile.
• V4 = RANDOM DIFFERENCE/DIVERSITY: In terms of color, a tile can be completely different from another tile. These tiles cannot be selected by the consumer to create a few patterns. Due to color differences, there is a natural appearance in the tiles. So, each installation has a unique structure.
• Glazed slabs are evaluated in 5 grades based on their abrasion values. The classification of surface abrasion resistance is made according to the test described in TS EN 10545-17 and is defined with a value between PEI 1 and 5.
• Generally, dark colored products have a lower PEI grade than light-colored products.
• When choosing a product, products with appropriate abrasion resistance (PEI grade) should be preferred, taking into account the foot traffic in such area.
PEI .I : Suitable for floors where there are no abrasive materials and on which people will walk with naked feet or soft footwear (such as bathrooms, bedrooms)
PEI .II: Suitable for floors with small quantities of abrasive materials from time to time, on which people will walk with sports shoes and rubber footwear (dining room, living areas)
PEI .III: Suitable for floors with small quantities of abrasive materials, on which people will walk with leather-sole shoes (corridors, hall entrances, terraces)
PEI. IV: Suitable for floors with abrasive materials and high foot traffic (such as pharmacy, bank, school, hotel lobbies)
PEI .V: Suitable for floors with high quantities of abrasive materials and extremely high foot traffic (such as bazaars, cafeteria entrances and circulation areas, restaurants)
PEI. V class products should also have high staining resistance.
• Polishing of glazed or unglazed porcelain tiles (after firing) by light mechanical abrasion. They are coated with a special film layer - mostly for staining -resistance.
• Surfaces get brighter and gain a more stylish look.
• Semi-polishing (lappato) process is applied to tailored wall tiles and granular slabs, and semi-gloss tiles are also produced. Therefore, a different effect is obtained on the surface of the tile.
• It is a sizing process to remove the size differences between the tiles.
• After this process, the tilted part at the tile edges are also eliminated; so, an integrated image is achieved at the installation.
• It is recommended that the tiles are laid with at least 1 mm joint.
• Slabs / Porcelain tiles have a slippery quality that varies according to their surface properties.
• Tiles with non-slip properties are defined as "anti-slip".
• DIN 51130 and DIN 51097 (German standards) and ASTM C1028 (wet/dry COF) and ANSI B101.3 (wet DCOF) (US standards) are commonly used in non-slip classification.
• Sliding angles or friction coefficients are measured according to the relevant standards and this gives information about suitable locations for their application.
• Anti-slip products are preferred in areas with high risk of slipping, such as pools and near pools, and in industrial areas with slippery floors due to oil etc.
Considerastions prior to aplications
• The floor selected for application should be smooth and clean.
• The color tone and caliber (size) information on the box should be read carefully, the products of different specifications should not be applied in the same area. In ceramic technology, a color/tone difference and size range at an acceptable level is inevitable.
• If there are defective, cracked, broken or deformed tiles, they should be separated before laying process and delivered to the dealer with the box/pallet label information. Complaints to be made after the laying procedure are not accepted.
• When preparing the adhesive mortar and joint filler to be used, the instructions on the packaging should be followed.
• In case of any subsequent modification, a sufficient amount of tiles should be obtained and stored, taking into account that the production may be ceased or the same color tone may not be found later.
• Waterproofing should first be applied to outdoors such as terrace, balcony, pool.
• Increased product should be kept with its packaging.
• The following descriptions are available on the box (sample):
Product Group: Wall Tile
Product Name: Tint White 
Nominal Size: 20 x 50 
Caliber (Working Size): W2 (operation range) 
Color Tone: T12 (defines the lot) 
Quality: First 
Date of Production: 190315 ( 19 March 2015) 
Quantity – M2: 10 pieces / approx. 1 m2 (box) 
• Variable characteristics of the naturally occurring raw materials and compulsory changes in the operating (furnace, press) conditions are a requirement of ceramic technology. Thus, the size of the tiles produced simultaneously may also change within a certain range.
• Products are sorted and boxed by automatic size identification devices on packaging lines to ensure easy installation during lying and to ensure that products within a certain range are grouped together.
• For example, if the range specified by the standard is 3 mm, three groups with a calibrated classification of 1 mm are created; these are the calibration classes (W1, W2 and W3).
• In order to avoid size problems in laid products, the pallet and box label information should be considered and tiles with the same caliber information should be laid together.
• Similarly, as stated in the size description, as a requirement of ceramic technology, it is natural that there are differences at an acceptable level in the color tones of products produced at different times.
• Therefore, a color tone class (such as T1, T15 and T73) is specified to describe each production party.
• It is a sequential system starting from T1.
• Sequential numbers (such as T3, T4, T5) do not specify color proximity.
• Each ton has its own integrity and the products of the same color tone class should be laid in the same location.
• Prior to application, tiles should be controlled by spreading them out in a mixed manner, and in case of anything disturbing, the problematic tiles should not be laid.
Application and maintenance


• After application, joint residues on the ceramic surface should be cleaned before drying. Water and a clean sponge are sufficient for this operation.
• Cleaning becomes more difficult when joint residues dry and harden on ceramic surfaces. In this case, the tile surfaces can only be cleaned with special chemicals (such as Yurtbay Cleaner). After cleaning, the surfaces should be rinsed several times with water.
• Use only water and neutral cleaning agents for the cleaning of metallic surface tiles (basic or acidic cleaning agents may cause damage to the surface).
• Cleaning frequency can vary from weekly to daily or several times a day depending on the tile location (depending on the tile surface properties and the potential for contamination of the application area). 
Standards - Definitions
• Ceramic tiles have common technical properties such as breaking and bending resistance, breaking resistance, water absorption, freeze-resistance, resistance to heat shock, etc.
• Technical properties that can vary by the surface properties of each product such as abrasion, staining and chemical resistance, anti-slip are also defined.
• Sizes and thicknesses, edge smoothness, surface smoothness and surface quality according to product groups are also defined along with their tolerances.
• Yurtbay Seramik makes production in accordance with TS EN 14411: 2012 which is an internationally recognized standard published by TSE and also keeps production under control with the test methods specified in this standard (TS EN 10545 series).
• Our ISO 9001 Quality Management System is certified and regularly audited by TÜV Austria, an international organization.
• Product group definitions according to shaping type and water absorption (Eb ) values:  
Duvar Karosu (see relevant Table) 
Dry pressed ceramic tiles TS EN 14411, Group BIII , Annex K (Eb > 10%) , GL 
Yer Karosu (see relevant Table) 
Dry pressed ceramic tiles TS EN 14411, Group  BIb ,, Annex H (0,5% < Eb < 3%) , GL 
Sırlı Porselen (see relevant Table) 
Dry pressed ceramic tiles TS EN 14411, Group  BIa ,, Annex H (Eb < 0,5%) , GL 
Porselen / Granit (see relevant Table) 
Dry pressed ceramic tiles TS EN 14411, Group  BIa ,, Annex G (Eb < 0,5%) , UGL (unglazed) 
• The anti-slip classification for industrial areas is based on the determination of the slip angle in the Ramp test and is grouped in R9 - R13.
Classification according to DIN 51130:
R9: slip angle >60 – 100 / low static friction (entrance areas, bathrooms, kitchens)
R10: slip angle > 100 – 190 / normal static friction (storage areas)
R11: slip angle >190 – 270 / increased static friction (restaurants, dining halls) 
R12: slip angle >270 – 350 / high static friction (industrial kitchens, fire brigade) 
R13: slip angle >350 / very high static friction (leather-textile factories, oil production facilities)
• According to naked feet test according to  DIN 51097
Class A: angle of inclination >120 - 170 (halls with naked foot traffic, sauna and resting areas)
Class B: angle of inclination >180 - 230 (showers around pools, staircases)
Class C: angle of inclination >240 (inclined pool vicinities) 
• The resistance of tiles to various types of household chemicals, pool chemicals and different stains (coffee, acids, bases, ink, etc.) are tested and graded. The relevant standard stipulates that the stain class of glazed and unglazed tiles is min. 3. Classification;
• Class 5: Stains on the tile surface can be removed with hot water.
• Class 4: Stains can be removed with weak cleaners.
• Class 3: Powerful cleaners can remove stains.
• Class 2: Solvents (such as acetone) are needed to remove stains.

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